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English Guide: Practical Tips for Better English Communication

Avoid common English mistakes: How and when to use "one of", "some of" and "few of" One rule of English grammar that can confuse a new or amateur English speaker is the subject-noun difference. This shows mostly when you use phrases like ‘one of’, ‘some of’ or ‘few of’ in a sentence. If you think that all these phrases imply the same meaning, and can be used interchangeably, then that’s where you will be wrong. Knowing how to use a phrase correctly is what will help you be a flawless English speaker. Now these three phrases...
Difference between ‘how about’ and ‘what about’ and how to use it If you aren’t a native speaker, learning right English can be quite a task. The reason being, a lot of words and phrases we use are colloquial and don’t really adhere to the rules of English language. That is why the difference between how we use and understand certain phrases and why it would mean something entirely different to a native speaker. The biggest problem arises when we use certain words and phrases interchangeably. The most basic...
article thumbnailIdioms are a group of words whose meaning is different from the literal meaning.  Idioms are expression, a phrase. They have hidden meaning. For Example- “Kick the bucket”, it means to die. There are many other idioms too which are related to body. These are known as Body idioms.Some of the Body Idioms are:1. All ears:  full attentionExample- Her all ears were here when we were talking about that matter.Example- We should keep all our ears open while...
article thumbnailMost of us get confused between the usage of - I, me, mine and myself. Are you confused, what to use when? This blog will help clear your confusion.When to use I, me, mine and myself1. I and me‘I’ is used when you are referring to yourself. In this, you are the one who is performing the action.Example- I am going for the dance class with Shweta.Example- I submitted the project a little late.Me is used when someone else is going to perform a...
people waiting outside room In our busy work schedules, occasionally there arise situations where we have to keep people waiting for us. This situation, especially, when faced in an office environment, when you are busy with your work and someone requests you or your boss orders you to do something which is very urgent. So, at that time you have to speak to them politely and communicate that they have to wait for a while. These are the words which can help you.Words used to ask...
Difference between Sometimes,sometime and some time English is a language which sometimes has many confusions. There are some words with different meanings and different words with the same meanings. Example - smart, bright and intelligent or attractive, pretty and lovely. These words mean the same, right? Now we are going to look at words which are same but are used according to the situation or during a specific time.For Example -She looked around for some time.He sometimes comes here.I need...
clarity Sometimes when we have a conversation with someone, we sway in our thoughts and tend to overlook what the other person just said.  This annoying situation can happen with anyone of us. But it is our duty to clarify the mistake or tell the person to repeat what he/she said. This situation can also be experienced by an employee during a meeting. In this particular blog, we would like to share some of the ways to ask for clarification. Words to be...
yes If suppose a person asks you, ‘Do you stay in Airoli?’, and if you need to say yes, you can say it in  different ways, something like, yes, you’re correct. This was just an example of how to say whether someone is right. There are some other ways or words you can use. 8 ways to say that whether someone is right 1. Yes that’s right - informal way of agreeing Example - Meena - I heard that you are shifting to Kerala? Is it? Reena- Yes that’s’ right....
sleeping Sleep is very important for our body. It keeps us fresh and energetic. Sometimes, when we do not get a good night’s sleep, we feel so irritated because our brain cannot function properly. And this may be a very common topic of discussion amongst our friends and parents and others too. So, here are some phrases which you can use.Phrases to discuss about sleep1. Tossing and turning: not being able to sleep properlyExample - Reena was tossing and...
Nice to Meet you As we all know, first impression is the last impression. Therefore, first impression should always be a positive and a good one, so that the person you are meeting feels good about you. There are some ways through which you can do this. Even in offices, when you have a meeting with your boss or with your clients there are some ways and manners which you need to follow. So, let us have look on interesting ways to say nice to meet you.Ways to say Nice...
How to start Social Conversation in English at a party Have you ever been to a party where you do not know too many people? Or perhaps look back and recollect your first office party - where everyone around seemed to know everyone but YOU?  While some may have a natural flair for starting conversations in English with strangers or acquaintances, there are some others who feel out of place in such situations. This article shall quickly give you some valuable tips, to ensure that you can strike an...
spelling The ability to communicate our thoughts through words is a unique ability given to only one species on earth – human beings! A language allows us to express our mind and our feelings to another individual and “English” is the most universally accepted language. While we may pride ourselves on our English vocabulary skills, and believe that we rarely make mistakes in our written communication, it would still be a good idea to have a quick look...
Reading News & articles There is no denying the fact that communication is a must for any kind of human interaction or collaborative efforts. The quality of your communication, however, be it written or spoken, depends on the strength of your vocabulary. Your ability to use the right words to convey exactly what you mean makes you a better communicator and holds you in good stead in general conversations.Here we shall look at a few tips that can help you improve your...
article thumbnailIn our life, we all take decisions and make decisions on a daily basis. Some decisions are important that cannot be changed and some decisions can be changed according to the situation. There are some ways to  say that we have changed our decision. So let’s have a look:9 interesting phrases to express that you have changed your decision:1. I changed my mind: you had made a decision in past but you changed it.Example-  We decided to study...
make things happen In our life we all meet people who are little nervous, confused or who have lost hope in some or the other way. If you consider yourself as a true friend, you can help your dear ones by motivating them with your kind words. This can surely make a difference in their life.9 Phrases for motivationSo here are some phrases that you can use to motivate your dear ones.1. Give it a try: when someone is doing something for the first time but is...
extravagant Is your friend too extravagant? Did you understand the meaning of extravagant? No, right. It means a person who spends his/her money in a wasteful or careless way. There are many other words which can be used to describe a person who spends way too much money.9 words used to describe that you spend too much are:1. To splash out: to spend money on things which are not actually needed.Example- She is the one who always splashes out and then...
article thumbnailThere are times when we get late for a meeting, or we miss our train or bus. These are all common situations which are faced by all. Sometimes you may get late because of your friend or because of someone else.  There is a certain way you can behave or communicate in these situations.  It is very important that you behave in a proper way so that you create a good impression of yourself on everyone.7 ways to say hurry up1. There’s no time to...
have a whale of time "This time she is going to hit the books”. Does that mean that she is going to beat a book? No, it means she is going to study hard this time. These sentences are known as idioms. Idioms are phrases which have a figurative or somewhat literal meaning They do not mean what exactly the words say. For Example- Best thing since slice bread – this means a new and a good invention. People also use idioms according to their moods like when they are...
article thumbnailDo you get confused between these words? They seem to be similar but they are used at different situations. For Example- The jeans which you bought for me yesterday from the market, is too loose. Do you think in this situation, the lose can be replaced with loose? No. So let us have a look at some more examples of the same kind and clear out our confusion between the uses of these words.Common mistakes to avoid between lose, loose, lost and...
thank you We all have certain people in our life to whom we are really thankful. It may be because they might have helped us or have been there when we needed their support.To show our courtesy, we must thank them in a good way. People give chocolates, gifts etc. to show the gratitude. The simplest form of expressing gratitude is by using the kind words. So, let us have a look at some of the best ways to thank someone. 8 Interesting ways to thank someone1....
sad baby In life, there are times when we feel low and upset. This situation comes when some unexpected things happen. We all, for sure, might have faced this kind of situation at least once in our lifetime. However, these things are very common and expressing them in English is not uncommon. In this blog, you will learn about some interesting slang words to express and describe disappointment.8 slang words to describe disappointment1. Bummer or Bummer...
Jam session In today’s competitive and busy world, it is not easy to get a job in an MNC company. As there are many candidates who apply on a daily basis, it becomes difficult for the HR to conduct the interviews. Hence, they conduct various rounds and the one who clears reaches the final round. These rounds include group discussions, written tests, and a JAM session. While you might be aware of tests and group discussions, JAM can be described as a short...
pronounce words English is the only language which is spoken widely all over the world as it can be easily learnt and understood. One of the old yet easiest way to learn English is by reading newspapers, books, novels etc. You might find range of vocabularies to learn. Pick up 10 new words and learn the meaning, spelling, pronunciation etc. Unfortunately, there are many words which are pronounced incorrectly. According to a recent research almost 82% of the...
travel idiom An idiom is an expression, word or a phrase that has a figurative meaning. They don’t mean exactly what the word say. They have hidden meaning. Like for example, “it’s raining cats and dogs”. The sentence doesn’t mean the way it is said or written. However, the sentence means it is raining heavily. In this blog, we will discuss travel idioms.Travel Idioms one must know1. Asleep at the wheel: Not attentiveExamples:Yash scored less marks in the final exams...
travel idiom In the previous blog, we explained some interesting travel idioms. In today’s blog, we will explain some more travel idioms that will help to improve English communication skills. Let us learn those travel idioms.8 Travel Idioms you must know1. Road rage: anger or violence towards other drivers.Examples:While returning from Pune, our driver had a road rage with the other driver.Earlier today a man was arrested for attacking a motorist in a...

Heat transfer

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Introduction to heat transfer

What is Heat Transfer?

h_trans_1Heat transfer is a process by which internal energy from one substance transfers to another substance. Thermodynamics is the study of heat transfer and the changes that result from it.

Heat can be transferred from one place to another by three methods: conduction in solids, convection of fluids (liquids or gases), and radiation through anything that will allow radiation to pass. The method used to transfer heat is usually the one that is the most efficient. If there is a temperature difference in a system, heat will always move from higher to lower temperatures.



Different Methods of Heat Transfer

Conduction:

h_trans_2Conduction occurs when two objects at different temperatures are in contact with each other. Heat flows from the warmer to the cooler object until they are both at the same temperature. Conduction is the movement of heat through a substance by the collision of molecules. At the place where the two object touch, the faster-moving molecules of the warmer object collide with the slower moving molecules of the cooler object. As they collide, the faster molecules give up some of their energy to the slower molecules. The slower molecules gain more thermal energy and collide with other molecules in the cooler object. This process continues until heat energy from the warmer object spreads throughout the cooler object. Some substances conduct heat more easily than others. Solids are better conductors than liquids, and liquids are better conductors than gases. Metals are very good conductors of heat, while air is very poor conductor of heat.

Example: Whenever you touch something that is hotter or colder than your skin, e.g. when you wash your hands in warm or cold water.
                                              

Convection:

h_trans_3In liquids and gases, convection is usually the most efficient way to transfer heat. Convection occurs when warmer areas of a liquid or gas rise to cooler areas in the liquid or gas. As this happens, cooler liquid or gas takes the place of the warmer areas which have risen higher. This cycle results in a continues circulation pattern that transfers heat to cooler areas.

Example: You see convection when you boil water in a pan. The bubbles of water that rise are the hotter parts of the water rising to the cooler area of water at the top of the pan. You have probably heard the expression "Hot air rises and cool air falls to take its place" -- this is a description of convection in our atmosphere. Heat energy is transferred by the circulation of the air. 
                                        


Radiation :

Both conduction and convection require matter to transfer heat. Radiation is a method of heat transfer that does not rely upon any contact between the heat source and the heated object. For example, we feel heat from the sun even though we are not touching it. Radiation is a form of energy transport consisting of electromagnetic waves traveling at the speed of light. No mass is exchanged and no medium is required.


h_trans_4Objects emit radiation when high energy electrons in a higher atomic level fall down to lower energy levels. The energy lost is emitted as light or electromagnetic radiation. Energy that is absorbed by an atom causes its electrons to "jump" up to higher energy levels. All objects absorb and emit radiation. When the absorption of energy balances the emission of energy, the temperature of an object stays constant. If the absorption of energy is greater than the emission of energy, the temperature of an object rises. If the absorption of energy is less than the emission of energy, the temperature of an object falls.
                                    

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