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English Guide: Practical Tips for Better English Communication

Telephonic Interview Tips and Mistakes to Avoid When you have a telephonic interview scheduled, you are bound to be anxious and nervous about it. After all, appearing for an interview alone is daunting enough. You have to prepare yourself way ahead of appearing for one. And when it is supposed to be over the phone, it is additionally stressful. How do you make an impression on someone without having met them face-to-face? Body language, gestures and your expressions are all important parts of...
Take versus Bring One common habit among non-native English speakers is that they translate sentences in their native language into English and this is where they go wrong. As someone who is learning spoken English, one needs to understand that the way a sentence is structured in, say Hindi or Tamil, it is not structured the same way in English. The syntax and grammar is different for each language. This is why a lot of people get confused and use the wrong...
Speech Pronunciations If you are on the path of improving your English language skills, you’ve probably gone through the usual routine of understanding the basic grammar do’s and don’ts and read extensively on it. You are also probably putting your improved knowledge to good use while conversing with friends, colleagues or family. But what if you had to speak on a platform? What if you were asked to come over onto a stage and talk about a particular topic? How would...
FUTURE TENSES OVERVIEW In grammar, a future tense is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future. Let us quickly look at the four basic future tenses and some examples to understand them better.Simple Future Tense:  used for an action that will occur in the future. It is used to talk about things we cannot control and expresses the future as a fact (e.g. we will know our results...
How to speak politely while raising a complaint to customer service department When you have had a bad experience with a service or product, it is only natural to feel cheated and angry. And the first thing to do when that happens is to lodge a complaint with the customer service department. However, when you are angry, you off-load all your frustration on the executive you are interacting with, without being open to solutions or suggestions. This is where you go wrong. Bear in mind that the person you are talking to is...
How to ask the right questions: Developing a vital life skill Remember how in school, our teachers encouraged us to ask questions. Whenever you speak with an intellectual, or with a person at a higher position than yours, you will notice that they always encourage you to ask questions and clear your doubts. Asking questions, and importantly, asking the right questions is an important part of a healthy and beneficial conversation. When you ask a question, you understand the concept better and put forward...
How to politely refuse additional work responsibilities You are a rockstar at your office. You are on every project that comes in, and your colleagues always need your opinion on the work they are doing. Your boss barely has a meeting without you present in there, and you are working on each project that comes in. Awesome! You are an asset to your company. But here is the problem. You know that you have way more on your plate than what you signed up for. While the praises that keep coming in are...
Top grammar mistakes to avoid in spoken English Do you know that English is a confusing language? It is. Well, very confusing, but there are many rules that guide us as to how and when to use some words and its derivatives  that can make it less confusing. While learning words in English, building your vocabulary and mastering correct pronunciation is not a major task, learning how to use the words correctly with a proper grammar sense is what separates an amateur English speaker from a...
Top mistakes during telephonic interviews and how to avoid them Hunting for a job, are you? Well, best of luck to you. Finding a good job takes a lot of effort, and most of it is making a good impression during your interview. You know well that an interview is the most crucial part of the job process, and you must give more than your 100 percent. A lot of times, people prefer taking interviews over the telephone, as it is more time-saving and quick. If you have a telephonic interview lined up, avoid making...
Social etiquette: How to politely interrupt a conversation Isn’t it annoying when somebody interrupts you while you are speaking to someone, especially if you are discussing something rather important or are in the middle of a conversation or an argument. But sometimes interruption becomes mandatory and people have to do it; also there will be instances where you will need to interrupt a person, and you definitely don’t want to be annoying. So how do you interrupt a conversation politely? How do you...
Popular Brand Names You’ve Been Mispronouncing All This Time Imagine this – you are amidst a number of people, just talking and chit-chatting, and suddenly you guys start talking about things you recently shopped, and you are excited to tell everyone about the cute, beautiful Chanel lipstick that you have bought. After all, you have blown up a fortune to buy those, it is only natural to talk about it.So, you say, ‘I love the new Chanel lipstick that I bought, it has the most amazing colour, and totally...
When to use "a Lot", "Very" and "So" When I started learning English, there were so many things I used to be confused about the language. One was, what word to use and when. A lot of words in English seem like they can be used interchangeably, but actually they shouldn’t be. There is a reason why there are different words for different reasons, because they need to be used in different ways.  For example, words like ‘lot’ and ‘very’ signify something in high quantity, something that is...
Common English grammar mistakes: Usage of among vs between I will not blame you if you thought there were a lot of contradictory rules in the English language. While it may be confusing for someone who is not a native speaker, don’t let that scare you. Hang in there. Once you understand the rules and logic behind why certain things are the way they are, you will get a knack of it, and also understand the nuances of using the correct words in the right way. We have discussed at length about a lot of...
How to express condolence in English It is difficult to talk to a person when they have lost someone. It is even more difficult if English is your second language and you don’t know what to say. Don’t fret, a lot of native speakers can also make mistakes at this time as it is very difficult to talk to a bereaved* person. Mostly, people make the mistake of using present tense verb, instead of past tense. If you are worried about making these mistakes, then here are some tips that...
How to use right filler words or 'gap words' in English conversation When trying to improve your spoken English, your aim shouldn’t simply be to improve your vocabulary and be fluent. A good English speaker has to be clear and economical with the words they use. One trick is to use your words wisely, especially when it comes to filler words like ‘alright’, ‘well’, ‘Okay’, ‘hold on’, and ‘actually’. The tricky part about filler words is that if not used correctly, you might come across as a confusing, or even a rude person. You need...
The best way to ask someone’s name in English Whether you are speaking English, or any language, the key is to be polite. And if you are speaking English as a new learner, or someone who is only polishing their spoken English, you need to be extra careful about being polite and using the right words. When trying to communicate in English, you should be careful about how you are communicating and how you put across anything. There will be many instances where you will have to think about...
How to use English words– Remember, Remind and Memorize English, as people popularly say, is a confusing language. And the reason for that is, when a word in a different language, say Hindi, is translated in English, you have to be very specific about which English word you choose. The English vocabulary is wide, and there are many words to mean the same thing, but that need to be used in different contexts, and that is what confuses people who are learning English, or are not fluent in their spoken...
English words to use instead of “Very” I could start this blog by saying that I am very thankful that you stopped by to read this blog. Hope it helps in improving your spoken English. Or I could also say that I am extremely delighted that you chose to utilize your five minutes of the day to read this blog and I am hopeful that it will help you in some way in improving your spoken English. The difference, as you would have understood, is simply that the second sentence reads better...
Understanding usage of confusing English words "Ago" & "Before" Hello there! Ready for the English lesson for today. I hope you remember that we have discussed about confusing words in English earlier too. There are many words in English that can leave a non-native speaker slightly perplexed, because one wrong word used,eagetutor.com changes the complete meaning of what you are trying to convey. Two of the most confusing words of all times are ‘ago’ and ‘before’. A lot of time, people end up using these...
How to make your point effectively in a meeting We understand that standing out in a meeting involving different people is very important. Everyone has their own ideas and wants to get their points across. So, getting noticed and making your point effectively is a difficult task, but not an impossible one. What you need to do is to know exactly what you want to say and say it in an effective manner. Of course, how you conduct yourself throughout the meeting is also important, because how well...
Job interview tips: How to convert your weak points into strengths? When applying for a job, the deal breaker is your resume and interview skills. With an impressive resume, you have a better chance at getting noticed and shortlisted for an interview. Then it depends on what impression you make on the interviewer during your interview, and that is what will decide your chances of landing the job. It is the responsibility of an interviewer to grill a candidate in such a way that they gauge the candidate’s strong and...
Avoid common English mistakes: How and when to use "one of", "some of" and "few of" One rule of English grammar that can confuse a new or amateur English speaker is the subject-noun difference. This shows mostly when you use phrases like ‘one of’, ‘some of’ or ‘few of’ in a sentence. If you think that all these phrases imply the same meaning, and can be used interchangeably, then that’s where you will be wrong. Knowing how to use a phrase correctly is what will help you be a flawless English speaker. Now these three phrases...
Difference between ‘how about’ and ‘what about’ and how to use it If you aren’t a native speaker, learning right English can be quite a task. The reason being, a lot of words and phrases we use are colloquial and don’t really adhere to the rules of English language. That is why the difference between how we use and understand certain phrases and why it would mean something entirely different to a native speaker. The biggest problem arises when we use certain words and phrases interchangeably. The most basic...
article thumbnail Idioms are a group of words whose meaning is different from the literal meaning.  Idioms are expression, a phrase. They have hidden meaning. For Example- “Kick the bucket”, it means to die. There are many other idioms too which are related to body. These are known as Body idioms.Some of the Body Idioms are:1. All ears:  full attentionExample- Her all ears were here when we were talking about that matter.Example- We should keep all our ears open while...
article thumbnail Most of us get confused between the usage of - I, me, mine and myself. Are you confused, what to use when? This blog will help clear your confusion.When to use I, me, mine and myself1. I and me‘I’ is used when you are referring to yourself. In this, you are the one who is performing the action.Example- I am going for the dance class with Shweta.Example- I submitted the project a little late.Me is used when someone else is going to perform a...

Kinetic Theory of Gases

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Introduction to Kinetic Theory of Gases

kinetictheoryofgases1A Scottish botanist, Robert Brown, first suggested that gases were in a state of random motion. His model of the physics of gases, which describes the behavior of an ideal gas, portrays them much like a group of billiard balls moving on a billiard table. He observed that pollen particles seem to jiggle about for no apparent reason.

We see the same thing when observing smoke particles under a microscope. The random jerky movement of the particles is called Brownian motion and is due to their continuous and random bombardment by air molecules. The work of Einstein, Maxwell, and Boltzmann gave us the kinetic theory, as we know it today.
 
Temperature and pressure are macroscopic properties of gases. These properties are related to molecular motion, which is a microscopic phenomenon. The kinetic theory of gases correlates macroscopic properties and microscopic phenomena. Kinetics means the study of motion, and in this case, the motion of gas molecules. 
 

Main Postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases:

  • A gas consists of very small microscopic particles called “molecules.” Depending on the nature of the gas, each gas molecule can consist of an atom or group of atoms. Molecules are in continuous motion. 
  • All the molecules of a gas are in a stable state and are considered identical. 
  • Any finite volume of a gas consists of a very large number of molecules. 
  • At S.T.P. there are 3 x 1025 molecules in a cubic meter. 
  • Compared to their own dimensions, the molecules are wide apart from each other. 
  • The diameter of a molecule is about 3 x 10-10 meters. 
  • Gas molecules move in straight lines in all possible directions (i.e., they randomly move) at various speeds. 
  • Gas molecules collide with each other and with the walls of containers. Their collisions are perfectly elastic in nature. 
  • When gas molecules collide with the walls of a container, they transfer their momentum, which appears as the pressure of gas. 
  • The molecules of an ideal gas exert no force of attraction or repulsion on one another except during collision. 
  • The average kinetic energy of gas molecules is directly proportional to absolute temperature. 
  • At a given temperature, the molecules of all gases have the same kinetic energy. 
  • Newtonian mechanics is applicable to molecular motion.

     

Temperature

The kinetic theory explains why temperature should be a measure of the average kinetic energy of molecules. According to the kinetic theory, any given molecule has a certain mass, m; a certain velocity, v; and a kinetic energy of 1/ 2 mv2. As we said, molecules in any system move at a wide variety of different velocities, but the average of these velocities reflects the total amount of energy in that system.
 
We know from experience that substances are solids at lower temperatures, while liquids and gases are substances at higher temperatures. This accords with our definition of temperature as average kinetic energy; because the molecules in gases and liquids have more freedom of movement, they have a higher average velocity.

 

Pressure

In the kinetic-molecular theory of gases, pressure is the force exerted against the wall of a container by the continual collision of molecules against it. In physics, pressure, P, is the measure of the force exerted over a certain area. We generally say that something exerts a lot of pressure on an object if it exerts a great amount of force on that object, and if that force is exerted over a small area. Mathematically:
 
kinetictheoryofgases2
Pressure is measured in units of pascals (Pa), where 1 Pa = 1 N/m2. 
Pressure comes into play whenever force is exerted on a certain area, but is a particularly important characteristic of gases. Molecules are assumed to rebound elastically, with no kinetic energy lost in perpendicular collision. Therefore, ∆v = v - (-v) = 2v (see figure below). If a molecule is moving perpendicular to a wall, then it will strike the opposite parallel wall, rebound, and return to strike the original wall again. If the length of the container or distance between the two walls is the path length l, then the time between two successive collisions on the same wall will be ∆t = 2l/v. Therefore, the continuous force that a molecule moving perpendicular to a wall exerts is:
kinetictheoryofgases3Change in momentum as a particle hits a wall

kinetictheoryofgases4
 
The molecules in a sample of gas are not, of course, all moving perpendicularly to a wall. However, the components of their actual movement can be imagined to be along the three mutually perpendicular x, y, and z axes. If the number of molecules moving randomly, N, is large, then on the average, one-third can be assumed to exert their force along each of the three perpendicular axes. The square of the average velocity along each axis, v2(x), v2(y), or v2(z), will then be one-third of the square of the average total velocity v2:
 
v2(x)= v2(y)= v2(z)= v2/3
 
The average or mean of the square of the total velocity can replace the square of the perpendicular velocity. Therefore, for a large number of molecules N
 
F= (N/3) mv2/l
 
Consequently, the pressure will be given by 
 kinetictheoryofgases5
(since P = F/A)

 
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