English Guide: Practical Tips for Better English Communication

article thumbnailIn our life, we all take decisions and make decisions on a daily basis. Some decisions are important that cannot be changed and some decisions can be changed according to the situation. There are some ways to  say that we have changed our decision. So let’s have a look:9 interesting phrases to express that you have changed your decision:1. I changed my mind: you had made a decision in past but you changed it.Example-  We decided to study...
make things happen In our life we all meet people who are little nervous, confused or who have lost hope in some or the other way. If you consider yourself as a true friend, you can help your dear ones by motivating them with your kind words. This can surely make a difference in their life.9 Phrases for motivationSo here are some phrases that you can use to motivate your dear ones.1. Give it a try: when someone is doing something for the first time but is...
extravagant Is your friend too extravagant? Did you understand the meaning of extravagant? No, right. It means a person who spends his/her money in a wasteful or careless way. There are many other words which can be used to describe a person who spends way too much money.9 words used to describe that you spend too much are:1. To splash out: to spend money on things which are not actually needed.Example- She is the one who always splashes out and then...
article thumbnailThere are times when we get late for a meeting, or we miss our train or bus. These are all common situations which are faced by all. Sometimes you may get late because of your friend or because of someone else.  There is a certain way you can behave or communicate in these situations.  It is very important that you behave in a proper way so that you create a good impression of yourself on everyone.7 ways to say hurry up1. There’s no time to...
have a whale of time "This time she is going to hit the books”. Does that mean that she is going to beat a book? No, it means she is going to study hard this time. These sentences are known as idioms. Idioms are phrases which have a figurative or somewhat literal meaning They do not mean what exactly the words say. For Example- Best thing since slice bread – this means a new and a good invention. People also use idioms according to their moods like when they are...
article thumbnailDo you get confused between these words? They seem to be similar but they are used at different situations. For Example- The jeans which you bought for me yesterday from the market, is too loose. Do you think in this situation, the lose can be replaced with loose? No. So let us have a look at some more examples of the same kind and clear out our confusion between the uses of these words.Common mistakes to avoid between lose, loose, lost and...
thank you We all have certain people in our life to whom we are really thankful. It may be because they might have helped us or have been there when we needed their support.To show our courtesy, we must thank them in a good way. People give chocolates, gifts etc. to show the gratitude. The simplest form of expressing gratitude is by using the kind words. So, let us have a look at some of the best ways to thank someone. 8 Interesting ways to thank someone1....
sad baby In life, there are times when we feel low and upset. This situation comes when some unexpected things happen. We all, for sure, might have faced this kind of situation at least once in our lifetime. However, these things are very common and expressing them in English is not uncommon. In this blog, you will learn about some interesting slang words to express and describe disappointment.8 slang words to describe disappointment1. Bummer or Bummer...
Jam session In today’s competitive and busy world, it is not easy to get a job in an MNC company. As there are many candidates who apply on a daily basis, it becomes difficult for the HR to conduct the interviews. Hence, they conduct various rounds and the one who clears reaches the final round. These rounds include group discussions, written tests, and a JAM session. While you might be aware of tests and group discussions, JAM can be described as a short...
pronounce words English is the only language which is spoken widely all over the world as it can be easily learnt and understood. One of the old yet easiest way to learn English is by reading newspapers, books, novels etc. You might find range of vocabularies to learn. Pick up 10 new words and learn the meaning, spelling, pronunciation etc. Unfortunately, there are many words which are pronounced incorrectly. According to a recent research almost 82% of the...
travel idiom An idiom is an expression, word or a phrase that has a figurative meaning. They don’t mean exactly what the word say. They have hidden meaning. Like for example, “it’s raining cats and dogs”. The sentence doesn’t mean the way it is said or written. However, the sentence means it is raining heavily. In this blog, we will discuss travel idioms.Travel Idioms one must know1. Asleep at the wheel: Not attentiveExamples:Yash scored less marks in the final exams...
travel idiom In the previous blog, we explained some interesting travel idioms. In today’s blog, we will explain some more travel idioms that will help to improve English communication skills. Let us learn those travel idioms.8 Travel Idioms you must know1. Road rage: anger or violence towards other drivers.Examples:While returning from Pune, our driver had a road rage with the other driver.Earlier today a man was arrested for attacking a motorist in a...
phrasal verb with do Phrasal verbs are a combination of a verb and preposition, a verb, and an adverb. They are also known as ‘compound verb’. For e.g. - Don’t put me off, I am trying my best. There are many phrasal verbs which we use in our day to day communication. In today’s blog, we will explain phrasal verbs using the word “do”.Phrasal verbs using do:1. Do up: make something look good.Examples: I will help you to do up your hair.You should try doing up...
bossy   In the professional world, we use a formal English for communicating with our colleagues. But sometimes bosses and managers use expressions which you have never heard about. In today’s blog, we are bringing you bossy words which you need to understand in order to be comfortable and stable in the professional world.8 Bossy words you must know:1. Under my nose: to do some work under someone’s supervision.Examples: The new boss is so strict that every employee...
idiom world In your day to day life you meet many people with different behaviours and attitudes. Some are short-tempered, some are down to earth while some are shy and others are talkative. While maintaining friendship with them, you might have surely faced a situation where you had to stop someone from talking  rubbish things. Situations like these need to be handled calmly without actually offending the person. In this blog, we bring you idioms that can...
homophone Have you heard these words- ad, add; bare, bear; been, bean and got confused with the spellings? These words are pronounced in a similar way but are spelled differently and mean different. These words are known as homophones. There are some more examples of homophones. So, let us have a look at some more interesting homophones. 7 interesting homophones:1. Allowed and AloudAllowed means when you get a permission from someone to do...
socializing in English In our day to day life, we use many words to converse in English. Many of these words used are a combination of a verb and a preposition or a combination of verb and adverb. These words are called Phrasal verbs. These words give an entirely different meaning when combined. It is vital to know their proper meaning in order to use them in a sentence. Till now we have listed many blogs related to phrasal verbs and its usage to describe your day....
car All these years we published blogs that were related to interview skills or English grammar. Just a few days back we started creating more blogs that helped the beginners to learn basic English skills. The basic English skills include vocabularies, phrases, idioms that are used in day to day communication. While the blogs provided information on general topics, today’s blog is for those who love cars, bikes etc. i.e. for men and boys. However,...
funny idiom to improve English 1 In our last blog, we described funny idioms that are often used by the native speakers in the day to day communication. Funny idioms not only add a humorous touch but also make you a pro-English speaker. Let us have a look at the remaining idioms that are funnier than the previous one. 6 Funny idioms you must know1. Chew the fatThis idiom means to chat in a friendly and leisurely way or engage in casual gossip sessions. It is generally said to...
funny idiom to improve English Idioms are an everyday figure of speech which is taken in a light and a humorous way. The figurative meaning of the idioms makes the sentence often go against the logical “rules of language and grammar”.  Native speakers use these idioms daily in the conversation which not only improves English but also helps to get the command over the language. In today’s blog, we’ll teach funny idioms which will help improve your English-speaking skills.5...
confused In life, we have faced many instances where we have misunderstood many things and have ended up confused. We were able to clear a few, while there was a lot of confusion in the others. It is important to clarify and clear out the confusion in order to avoid unexpected results. To understand and clarify the confusion, you are required to articulate the points in an impeccable English with good vocabulary words. Today’s blog will help you with...
food “Food is love food is life” for all the food lovers. It’s hard to define the relation that the food lovers share with food. While people explore cuisines from different places to get a sense of taste, they also learn many new things. Learning new things is easy and so is English. As a foodie, you learn new dishes and its ingredients which indirectly help you to learn new words, spellings and pronunciation. Sometimes describing them is difficult as there...
food vocabulary In our last blog, we described vocabulary related to texture of the food. This blog will introduce more words about food that can be used while communicating. Food vocabulary is useful for everyone – right from the housewives to the food lovers. Have you ever been in the phase where you found it difficult to explain a recipe in English? If your answer is yes, then don’t worry. It’s something that everybody has gone through. There are many words that...
conversation starters When you go to a new place, where you don’t know anyone, it becomes a bit difficult to spend the time. In order to know more about the festival, culture, climate etc. of that place you decide to explore the city. You find a group of locals there and decide to make friendship and know about the city. A fluent English, in this case, is very helpful to start the conversation. You need to be aware of the conversation starters that will encourage...
grammar mistakes Are you a beginner in English? It is common to get confused with similar words or phrases. Speaking English is easy as it just takes confidence and a person to talk with. Don’t be afraid of mistakes, mistakes are the proof that you are trying. Only by making mistake you can learn new things. It is not that you are the only one who is making mistakes. There are many native English speakers who get confused while speaking. The mistakes can be...

Sex Determination System


Development of sexual characteristics
bio_gen_a16_3A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism. Two sexes are present in most sexual organisms. Because of the sexual chromosome differences the sex determination.


I. The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance and Sex Linkage

A. Sutton and Boveri’s chromosome theory of inheritance proposed in 1902—Genes are located on chromosomes
B. Just previous to this (end of 19th century) biologists had discovered that half of all sperm cells carry a structure called an X body.
C. In 1905 the X bodies were determined to be chromosomes—X chromosomes.
D. Then the Y chromosome was also discovered in 1905.
E. Together the X and Y chromosomes are known as the sex chromosomes.
F. All other chromosomes are called autosomes.

G. Systems of sex chromosomes

1) XX-XO system (S H 5)
(a) Female—XX
(b) Male—X
(c) Occurs in some insects like grasshoppers

2) XX-XY System (S H 5)
(a) Female—XX (homogametic sex)
(b) Male XY (heterogametic sex)
(c) Occurs in Drosophila, mammals and some plants

3) ZZ-ZW System(S H 5)
(a) Female—XY (heterogametic sex)
(b) Male—XX (homogametic sex)
(c) Occurs in birds, butterflies and some fishes

4) X-Y-XY System(S H 5)
(a) Occurs in organisms with alteration of generations (e.g., liverworts and vascular plants)
(b) Male gametophytes—Y
(c) Female gametophytes—X
(d) Sporophytes—XY

H. Morphology and pairing of X and Y


1) Each type of sex chromosome has two regions

(a) Pairing region
(i) During synapsis of meiotic prophase I, the pairing regions combine
(ii) Some genes occur in these pairing regions
(iii) These genes exhibit X-and-Y linkage

(b) Differential region
(i) Differential regions do not pair during synapsis
(ii) Differential region genes are either
1. X-linked
2. Y-linked

(iii) Any gene X or Y chromosome is said to be sex linked.

I. Sex determination in Drosophila

1) Sex is determined by the ratio of the number of X chromosomes to number of autosomal sets

2) Scheme
(a) X/A = 1.0—female
(b) X/A = 0.5—male
(c) X/A > 1.0—metafemale
(d) X/A < 0.5—metamale

J. Sex determination in humans


• The presence or absence of the Y chromosome determines sex
• XX determines the female and XY determines the male.

Sex Determination

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