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Anatomy and Histology of Cervix

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What is Cervix?

The cervix is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina.
It has a shape of cylindrical or conical and protrudes through the upper anterior vaginal wall.


cervix2The vagina has a thick layer outside and it is the opening for the baby to get delivered from mother’s body.

Cervix is a the important part of the female reproductive system. That’s why it is named as ‘Neck of the Uterus’.






Anatomy of Cervix


cervix3

Ectocervix

The portio vaginalis  is the portion projecting into the vagina. It is also called as ectocervix.

This ectocervix is approximately 3 cm long and 2.5 cm wide.

While looking its shape we can see the convex shape with  elliptical surface and has anterior and posterior lips.

 

cervix4

External os

The external os is the opening of ectocervix. 

The ectocervix size & shape varies for different reasons. Age, hormonal state, and a vaginal birth during the delivery of women are some of the reasons.

After delivery through the the vagina the ectocervix appears bulkier and the external os appears wider, more slit-like and gaping.

 


Endocervical canal

The endocervical canal is the passage between the external os and the uterine cavity. Length and width of the endocervical canal varies widely. From flattened anterior to posterior, the endocervical canal measures 7 to 8 mm at its widest in reproductive-aged women.

Internal os

The endocervical canal terminates at the internal os which is the opening of the cervix inside the uterine cavity.


Histology of Cervix

The transformation zone is the area adjacent to the border of the endocervix and ectocervix. The Transformation zone undergoes metaplasia numerous times during normal life.

  • The metaplasia occurs when the endocervix is exposed to the harsh acidic environment of the vagina it undergoes metaplasia to squamous epithelium which is better suited to the vaginal environment.
  • When the ectocervix enters the less harsh uterine area it undergoes metaplasia to become columnar epithelium.

Metaplasia occurs during:

  • puberty
  • Normal menstrual cycle
  • Post-menopause

Cervical mucus


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Reference Links:

 

Title: Anatomy and Histology of Cervix

What is Cervix? ( H 1)

The cervix is the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina.

It has a shape of cylindrical or conical and protrudes through the upper anterior vaginal wall. The vagina has a thick layer outside and it is the opening for the baby to get delivered from mother’s body. Cervix is a the important part of the female reproductive system. That’s why it is named as ‘Neck of the Uterus’.

                          

 

Schematic frontal view of female anatomy

 

Anatomy of Cervix ( H 2)

Ectocervix ( S H 4)

The portio vaginalis  is the portion projecting into the vagina. It is also called as ectocervix. This ectocervix is approximately 3 cm long and 2.5 cm wide. While looking its shape we can see the convex shape with  elliptical surface and has anterior and posterior lips.

 

Cervix

 

External os( S H 4)

The external os is the opening of ectocervix.  The ectocervix size & shape varies for different reasons. Age, hormonal state, and a vaginal birth during the delivery of women are some of the reasons. After delivery through the the vagina the ectocervix appears bulkier and the external os appears wider, more slit-like and gaping.

Cervix viewed from below

 

Endocervical canal( S H 4)

The endocervical canal is the passage between the external os and the uterine cavity. Length and width of the endocervical canal varies widely. From flattened anterior to posterior, the endocervical canal measures 7 to 8 mm at its widest in reproductive-aged women.

Internal os( S H 4)

The endocervical canal terminates at the internal os which is the opening of the cervix inside the uterine cavity.

 

Histology of Cervix( H 3)

·         The epithelium of the cervix is varied.

·         The ectocervix is composed of nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium.

·         The endocervix is composed of simple columnar epithelium.

The transformation zone is the area adjacent to the border of the endocervix and ectocervix. The Transformation zone undergoes metaplasia numerous times during normal life.

·         The metaplasia occurs when the endocervix is exposed to the harsh acidic environment of the vagina it undergoes metaplasia to squamous epithelium which is better suited to the vaginal environment.

·         When the ectocervix enters the less harsh uterine area it undergoes metaplasia to become columnar epithelium.

Metaplasia occurs during:

  • puberty
  • Normal menstrual cycle
  • Post-menopause

 

Cervical mucus( S H 4)

 

Want to know more about Cervix and Cervical Mucus? Click here to schedule live homework help from a certified tutor!

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About eAge Tutoring:

eAgeTutor.com is the premium online tutoring provider.  Using materials developed by highly qualified educators and leading content developers, a team of top-notch software experts, and a group of passionate educators, eAgeTutor works to ensure the success and satisfaction of all of its students. 

 Contact us today to learn more about our guaranteed results and discuss how we can help make the dreams of the student in your life come true!

Topic Description: Connect with Online Tutor to learn more about Cervix. eTutors are ready to help you to draw the different parts of female reproductive system in a simplest way.

Keywords: Cervix, vaginal wall, ectocervix, external os, endocervical canal, nonkeratinized, squamous epithelium, endocervix, columnar epithelium, transformation zone, metaplasia, harsh acidic, menstrual cycle , post-menopause, mucus plug, vaginal environment, Portio vaginalis, fertility, sexual response, Orgasm, Sex organs Diagram, Sex organs Pictures, Reproductive Biology Help, Reproductive Biology Articles, Biology Help, Biology Tutoring, Biology Articles.

 

Reference Links:

ü  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cervix

ü  http://www.medical-transcription1.com/DisplayCountyDetail.aspx?id=203&provider=6226&type=profile&TabId=452

ü  http://www.gynaeonline.com/internal_anatomy.htm

Related Topics:

ü  Reproductive system

ü  Human Male External Genital Organs

ü  Human Male Internal Genital Organs

ü  Human Female Reproductive System

ü  Anatomy and Function of Uterus

ü  What are the layers found in Uterus?

ü  Anatomy and Functions of Vagina

ü  Hygiene and Signs of Vaginal disease

ü  Function of Fallopian tube

ü  Position and Function of Cervix

ü  The Human Ovaries

ü  Hormonal controls and the functioning of the female reproductive system

ü  Menstrual cycle

ü  Phases of Menstrual Cycle

ü  Characteristics of Menstrual Cycle

ü  Menopause

ü  Examination, Treatment and Prevention of Menopause

ü  Pregnancy

ü  Diagnosis and Physiology of Pregnancy

ü  Embryonic and fetal development

ü  Risk factors and Complications in Pregnancy

ü  Parturition

ü  Stages in Child birth

ü  Complications in Child birth

ü  Fertilization and Cleavage

ü  Lactation

ü  Stages of Lactation

ü  Implantation

ü  Function and Mechanism in implantation

ü  Contraception

ü  Reproductive Biology work sheet 1-Q&A

ü  Reproductive Biology work sheet 2-MCQ

 

 

    

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