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DNA Genetic Recombination

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What is DNA Recombination?

Definition:dna_recombination-1

Genetic Recombination is the process of forming new allelic combination in offspring by exchanges between genetic materials.


Or


we can simply say it is a process by which a molecule of nucleic acid  is broken and then joined to a different one



Crossing Over & Recombination

The DNA double helix won’t interact with the rest of its segments. Human beings have chromosomes in a specific area in their cells and these areas are known as chromosome territories. It is present in the nucleus of the cell. As they are dna_recombination-2physically different from the rest of the parts of cell, it is a unique specialty of DNA and helps the DNA function as a stable repository for information. Some times during recombination the chromosomes interact with each other and the process you know is the chromosomal crossover. Two helices of DNA break and a particular section of a helix will rejoin with the other helix. This is known as crossover of DNA.


Because of the recombination, chromosomes exchange their genetic information with the other helix and new combinations would be arises. This new combination of genes increases the chance of natural selection. This will be very important for the evolutionary process of the biology.This recombination would create new proteins too. This genetic recombination has its main role in the DNA repairing. This has the influence in the cell response to the double helix breaks.



Types of Recombination

1.Homologous Recombination

2.Non Homologous Recombination

dna_recombination-3

Homologous recombination is the common form of chromosomal crossing over. Homologous means the two chromosomes which undergoes the process of

cross over share very similar sequences.


The Non-homologous recombination can occur between DNA sequences that contain no sequence homology may damage the cells and result with many genetic abnormalities and the translocation of chromosomal.

 

Catalyzing Enzymes


The genetic recombination reaction is catalyzed by
•    Recombinases - RecA- is responsible for the repair of DNA double strand breaks
•    RAD51 protein is required for mitotic and meiotic recombination
•    DMC1 protein is specific to meiotic recombination.



Role of Enzyme:

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Recombinases are the enzymes which catalyses the recombination reactions. This recombinase break the DNA double helix for DNA genetic recombination or any damage to DNA may also a reason for the DNA breakage


After the double helix break, the enzyme recombinase leads to the join of the two helices. While joining with the other helix, it should match to the complementary strand of the other helix. Then only the recombination would occur.



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