What are Invertible matrices?


If A is a square matrix of order m, and if there exists another square matrix B of the same order m such that AB = BA = I, then B is called the inverse matrix of A and is denoted by A-1. In this case we say A is invertible.

Important Remarks:

•    Inverse of a square matrix, if it exists, is unique.
•    If A and B are invertible matrices of the same order, then (AB)-1 = B-1A-1     

Inverse of a matrix by elementary operations

There are six operations (transformations) on a matrix, three of which are due to rows and three due to columns, which are known as elementary operations or transformations.
i)        The interchange of any two rows or two columns.  Symbolically the interchange of ith and jth rows is denoted by invertiblematrices2  and the interchange of ith and jth column is denoted by invertiblematrices3 
ii)           The multiplication of the elements of any row or column by a non zero number.  Symbolically the multiplication of each element of the ith row by k, where k≠0 is denoted by invertiblematrices6  The corresponding column operation is denoted by invertiblematrices7
iii)        The addition to the elements of any row or column, the corresponding elements of any other row or column multiplied by any non zero number.  Symbolically, the addition to the elements of ith row, the corresponding elements of jth row multiplied by k is denoted by invertiblematrices8   The corresponding column operation is denoted by invertiblematrices9

Example: Obtain the inverse of the following matrix using elementary operation

Solution:  We know  A=IA


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