The Earth’s ecosystems are coupled to human environments. They regulate the water cycle, energy transfer, climate change which is supporting the growth of the living organisms of the earth.
Natural systems decide the human environments and the ecosystems are considered common-pool resources. These ecosystems include all beneficiaries and they may degrade. As per many research reports, the people who are living in natural areas are not affected by any health issues like heart attack, diabetes or other disorders. Because of urban development slowly the natural resources have stared depleting and the health issues of the humans are increasing.
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment identifies four main ecosystem services with 30 sub-categories.
The ecological commons
• The service of Provision - food, raw materials, medicine, water supplies
• The service of Regulation - climate, water, soil retention, flood retention
• The service of Culture- science and education, artistic, spiritual
• The service of Support - soil formation, nutrient cycling, water cycling
The Ecological Services
Human societies are in high stress nowadays because of the depletion level of ecological commons. The exact problem should be analyzed yet. The ecology of the planet has been disturbed by human activities and urban development. These create a big loss of ecosystem services and the ecological commons can’t be delivered to people.
The major reasons
• Habitat loss and degradation.
• Over-exploitation of natural resources
• Pollution and diseases.
• Human-induced climate change.
Global warming, the ozone hole, and polar ice melt are the added threats to the ecosystem of the planet. If the carbon level was under control and regulation the ecosystem can be saved. The biodiversity threat is studied by ccologists, and they are finding solutions to sustain the planet's ecosystems for future generations. The extinction of species is directly or indirectly influenced by the human activities. The earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanoes are also included in these threats.
Depletion of human society and massive loss are known as the biodiversity crisis. 50% of the world’ species are predicted to go extinct within the next 50 years. The aquatic species like fisheries are facing challenges to survive in the polluted environment.
Measuring the wealth of ecosystems to express their value may help finding solutions to the biodiversity crisis. The loss of natural capital continues to accelerate and goes undetected by mainstream monetary analysis.
Impact of Climate Change
Climate change and biodiversity are closely related.
The escalating extinction crisis shows that the diversity of nature cannot support the current pressure that humanity is placing on the planet.
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