 ## TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES

An equation involving trigonometric ratios of an angle is said to be a trigonometric identity if it is satisfied for all values of that angle for which the given trigonometric ratios are defined. Trigonometric identities are equalities that involve trigonometric functions and are true for every single value of the occurring variables.

We have three main trigonometric identities:

•    Sin2 θ + Cos2 θ = 1

•    Sec2 θ = 1 + Tan2 θ

•    Cot2 θ + 1 = Cosec2 θ

Let’s discuss each of the above trigonometric identity in detail:

# Sin2 θ + Cos2 θ = 1

In the adjoining figure, we have Δ ABC right angled at C. According to Pythagoras theorem:

AB2 = AC2 + BC2 … (i)

Divide each term of above equation (i) by AB2

AB2 = AC2 + BC2    … (ii)
AB2     AB2     AB2

As we know, Sin θ = Opposite / Hypotenuse

Sin θ = BC / AB
And, Cos θ = Adjacent / Hypotenuse
Cos θ = AC / AB

Putting the values of Sin θ and Cos θ in equation (ii)

1 = Cos2 θ + Sin2 θ

This is true for all θ such that 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90°. So, this is a trigonometric identity.

## Sec2 θ = 1 + Tan2 θ

In the adjoining figure, we have Δ ABC right angled at C. According to Pythagoras theorem:

AB2 = AC2 + BC2 … (i)

To prove next identity we will divide equation (i) by AC2

AB2 = AC2 + BC2    … (iii)
AC2     AC2    AC2

As we know, Secant θ = Hypotenuse / Adjacent

Secant θ = AB / AC
And, Tangent θ = Opposite / Adjacent
Tangent θ = BC / AC

Putting the values of Secant θ (Sec θ) and Tangent θ (Tan θ) in equation (iii)

Sec2 θ = 1 + Tan2 θ

Tan θ and Sec θ are not defined for θ = 90°

So the above equation is true for all θ such that 0° ≤ θ < 90°

## Cot2 θ + 1 = Cosec2 θ

In the adjoining figure, we have Δ ABC right angled at C. According to Pythagoras theorem:

AB2 = AC2 + BC2 … (i)

Next we will divide equation (i) by BC2

AB2 = AC2 + BC2    … (iv)
BC2     BC2     BC2

As we know, Cotangent θ = Adjacent / Opposite

Cotangent θ = AC / BC
And, Cosecant θ = Hypotenuse / Opposite
Cosecant θ = AB / BC

Putting the values of Cosecant θ (Cosec θ) and Cotangent θ (Cot θ) in equation (iv)

Cosec2 θ = Cot2 θ + 1
Cot θ and Cosec θ are not defined for θ = 0°

So the above equation is true for all θ such that 0° < θ ≤ 90°

Using these identities, we can convert each trigonometric ratio in terms of other trigonometric ratios, that is, if any one of the ratios is known, we can also find the values of other trigonometric ratios.

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