Labour & Delivery
The labor pain may last for hours or few days. The contractions of uterus and the dilating of cervix may start around 35-38 weeks gestation.
Cervical dilation is the thinning and stretching of the cervix. The degree of cervical effacement may be felt during a vaginal examination. A 'long' cervix implies that not much has been taken into the lower segment, and vice versa for a 'short' cervix. Latent phase ends with the onset of active first stage; when the cervix is about 3 cm dilated.
Stages of delivery
First stage: dilation
- Midwives, nurse and clinicians use to assess the labouring mother's progress.
- Bishop Score defined the labor of mother.
- The Bishop score helps to predict the spontaneous progress into second stage (delivery).
- Starts classically when the thinned cervix is 3 cm dilated.
- Then cervix begins to dilate.
- Membranes start rupturing
- Show of blood stain
Sometimes doctors can’t predict the progress in pain and they perform may an unnecessary Cesarean. This should be used in emergencies to save the mother and baby’s life. Otherwise it will be a high expensive procedure and affect mother’s health by taking time to heal the wounds, weight gain, weakness etc.
Second stage: expulsion
• cervix is fully dilated
• Dilation ends when the baby is finally born.
• The head is fully engaged in the pelvis;
• Head to pass below the pubic arch.
• Additional maternal efforts of pushing are necessary.
• Woman may feel a burning or stinging sensation.
Third stage: placenta
- Uterus expels the placenta afterbirth.
- Placenta usually birthed within 15–30 minutes of the baby being born.
- Maternal blood loss is limited by contraction of the uterus following birth of the placenta.
- Normal blood loss is less than 600 mL.
The "fourth stage of labor" is a term used in two different senses:
- It can refer to the immediate puerperium, or the hours immediately after delivery of the placenta.
- It can be used in a more metaphorical sense to describe the weeks following delivery.
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