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Water Pollution


Effects of Water Pollution on Living Organisms

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Based on the part of the environment polluted, pollution is of three types: (i) Air Pollution, (ii) Water Pollution and (iii) Soil Pollution.

Though pollution at times, occurs naturally due to volcanic eruptions, forest fires, etc., it is mainly man-made due to the enormous growtwater pollution-3h in the human population size.

In order to control environmental pollution and to protect and improve the quality of environment, many governments have passed Environmental Protection Acts.

What is Water Pollution?

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Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies. When pollutants are discharged into water bodies the water gets polluted if adequate treatments to remove harmful compounds has not been taken. It affects all living organisms in the water bodies. This not only damages the individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities. Water pollution is a global problem which is faced by all of the human existence and as well as by every species. It can easily cause harmful effect to the entire ecosystem.


Types of Pollutantswater pollution-10

•    Biodegradable pollutants: Sewage, paper, leather goods, animal refuse, dead plants and animals, etc.

•    Non-biodegradable pollutants: Pesticides, polythene bags, plastics, aluminum cans, etc.

Causes of Water Pollution

The specific contaminants are chemicals, pathogens, and physical or sensory changes such as elevated temperature and discoloration. These contaminants affect the Oxygen level of water and thus the water living organisms gets destroyed. Many of the chemical substances are toxic and produce waterborne diseases to all hosts. It also leads to many diseases namely Hepatitis.

Domestic Sewage

•    Domestic sewage mainly contains biodegradable wastes, they are decomposed by organisms die due to lack of oxygen.
•    Contains nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus, which trigger excessive growth of algae and aquatic plants; this may result with Deterioration in water quality and fish mortality
•    Also contain pathogens and cause diseases like typhoid, jaundice, dysentery, etc.

Industrial Wastewater pollution-8s

•    Mercury and DDT cause biological magnification;
•    Many industrial chemicals are toxic to humans and other animals.

Thermal Waste

•    Heated waste waters flowing out from thermal power plants, eliminates or reduces many organisms that are sensitive to high temperature.
•    But enhance the growth of plants and fish in extremely cold areas.

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How to control Water Pollution?

•    Using non-toxic soaps, detergents and cleaning products

•    Disposing harmful chemicals in accordance with safety regulations

•    Keeping chemicals in tightly sealed containers to avoid groundwater contamination.
•    Reducing runoff pollution.
•    To stop such problems major steps and measures to control water pollution must be taken quickly.


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