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English Guide: Practical Tips for Better English Communication

english-can-may An important aspect of communication between any two individuals is seeking and obtaining permission to carry out any specific activity or task. Right from our childhood and school days, we have been taught to ask permission from our parents or teachers, whether this is to take or do something. Whether you will be successful in getting the permission, depends on the way you ask. Here are some key considerations to bear in mind. Be polite when you...
Welcome speech When you join a new office, it is likely that you will be given a formal or informal welcome. Depending on the size of the organisation, this may involve small or large groups of colleagues, including your managers.  The purpose of these welcome meetings is to speed up your ‘integration’ into the organisation by acquainting yourself with colleagues and the work they do. It is also to ease your nerves, make you comfortable and feel welcome into the...
article thumbnail The size of your vocabulary is one of the indicators of your command of the language. Having a large vocabulary does not automatically guarantee that one is a good communicator- because the appropriate usage of the vocabulary is even more important- but it certainly helps to have it than not. The reasons are not too difficult to understand. A big English vocabulary is empowering because it gives the freedom to use different words at appropriate times....
report by LinkedIn The nature of work is changing, and pretty fast at that! The pace of adoption of digital technologies is such that one can be rendered obsolete very quickly. Artificial intelligence and machine learning are taking over a lot of functions that previously relied on human beings, and very few professions can be considered immune to the conquest by technology. This raises serious questions on what skills will keep professionals valuable to their...
Learn-to-speak-up-in-office-meetings ‘If you just communicate, you can get by. But if you communicate skilfully, you can work miracles’. Office meetings provide a great platform for an employee to make oneself visible and be heard. The success of any meeting lies in the effectiveness of the ideas communicated. Thus it becomes imperative that you should speak effectively and make people take note of you. These meetings should be viewed as an opportunity to showcase your abilities....
IELTS IELTS examination is a near-mandatory doorway that people, planning to study or work overseas in countries where the main language of communication is English,have to get through. Similar to an entrance test for certain professional courses or government institutions, the IELTS test aims to determine the proficiency of candidates in the English language. The evaluators use this test to identify different facets of English communication amongst...
funny idioms Idioms make a sentence feel lively. When you use idioms in a sentence, it adds a humorous element and make you look like a native speaker. Native speakers use more idioms and phrases in order improve their English communication skills. Knowing the correct meaning and proper usage can make you a pro in the English language.Idioms are figurative in nature and cannot be considered literal. In today’s blog, we will explain funny idioms that one must...
English idioms for office As you get used to working in a company, chances are that you will often encounter idioms (phrases whose meanings are not obviously based on the individual words used) from your peers or bosses. Many of these are so overused that they have become clichés, but it is important that you understand these to get a clear idea of the context of the statement. While there are countless idioms that may be used in the workplace, let us just touch upon...
Sports Idioms Work is, in many ways, like sports. The ups and downs, the winning and losing, the planning and preparation, the execution and the myriad emotions- they all mirror what happens on a playing field. In fact, some career experts suggest that one should treat our jobs as a game we love, and work will be so much more enjoyable, productive and fulfilling. No wonder we have so many idioms in the English language that are related to sports. While these...
Telephonic Interview Tips and Mistakes to Avoid When you have a telephonic interview scheduled, you are bound to be anxious and nervous about it. After all, appearing for an interview alone is daunting enough. You have to prepare yourself way ahead of appearing for one. And when it is supposed to be over the phone, it is additionally stressful. How do you make an impression on someone without having met them face-to-face? Body language, gestures and your expressions are all important parts of...
Take versus Bring One common habit among non-native English speakers is that they translate sentences in their native language into English and this is where they go wrong. As someone who is learning spoken English, one needs to understand that the way a sentence is structured in, say Hindi or Tamil, it is not structured the same way in English. The syntax and grammar is different for each language. This is why a lot of people get confused and use the wrong...
Speech Pronunciations If you are on the path of improving your English language skills, you’ve probably gone through the usual routine of understanding the basic grammar do’s and don’ts and read extensively on it. You are also probably putting your improved knowledge to good use while conversing with friends, colleagues or family. But what if you had to speak on a platform? What if you were asked to come over onto a stage and talk about a particular topic? How would...
FUTURE TENSES OVERVIEW In grammar, a future tense is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future. Let us quickly look at the four basic future tenses and some examples to understand them better.Simple Future Tense:  used for an action that will occur in the future. It is used to talk about things we cannot control and expresses the future as a fact (e.g. we will know our results...
How to speak politely while raising a complaint to customer service department When you have had a bad experience with a service or product, it is only natural to feel cheated and angry. And the first thing to do when that happens is to lodge a complaint with the customer service department. However, when you are angry, you off-load all your frustration on the executive you are interacting with, without being open to solutions or suggestions. This is where you go wrong. Bear in mind that the person you are talking to is...
How to ask the right questions: Developing a vital life skill Remember how in school, our teachers encouraged us to ask questions. Whenever you speak with an intellectual, or with a person at a higher position than yours, you will notice that they always encourage you to ask questions and clear your doubts. Asking questions, and importantly, asking the right questions is an important part of a healthy and beneficial conversation. When you ask a question, you understand the concept better and put forward your...
How to politely refuse additional work responsibilities You are a rockstar at your office. You are on every project that comes in, and your colleagues always need your opinion on the work they are doing. Your boss barely has a meeting without you present in there, and you are working on each project that comes in. Awesome! You are an asset to your company. But here is the problem. You know that you have way more on your plate than what you signed up for. While the praises that keep coming in are...
Top grammar mistakes to avoid in spoken English Do you know that English is a confusing language? It is. Well, very confusing, but there are many rules that guide us as to how and when to use some words and its derivatives  that can make it less confusing. While learning words in English, building your vocabulary and mastering correct pronunciation is not a major task, learning how to use the words correctly with a proper grammar sense is what separates an amateur English speaker from a...
Social etiquette: How to politely interrupt a conversation Isn’t it annoying when somebody interrupts you while you are speaking to someone, especially if you are discussing something rather important or are in the middle of a conversation or an argument. But sometimes interruption becomes mandatory and people have to do it; also there will be instances where you will need to interrupt a person, and you definitely don’t want to be annoying. So how do you interrupt a conversation politely? How do you do...
Popular Brand Names You’ve Been Mispronouncing All This Time Imagine this – you are amidst a number of people, just talking and chit-chatting, and suddenly you guys start talking about things you recently shopped, and you are excited to tell everyone about the cute, beautiful Chanel lipstick that you have bought. After all, you have blown up a fortune to buy those, it is only natural to talk about it.So, you say, ‘I love the new Chanel lipstick that I bought, it has the most amazing colour, and totally...
When to use "a Lot", "Very" and "So" When I started learning English, there were so many things I used to be confused about the language. One was, what word to use and when. A lot of words in English seem like they can be used interchangeably, but actually they shouldn’t be. There is a reason why there are different words for different reasons, because they need to be used in different ways.  For example, words like ‘lot’ and ‘very’ signify something in high quantity, something that is...
Common English grammar mistakes: Usage of among vs between I will not blame you if you thought there were a lot of contradictory rules in the English language. While it may be confusing for someone who is not a native speaker, don’t let that scare you. Hang in there. Once you understand the rules and logic behind why certain things are the way they are, you will get a knack of it, and also understand the nuances of using the correct words in the right way. We have discussed at length about a lot of common...
How to express condolence in English It is difficult to talk to a person when they have lost someone. It is even more difficult if English is your second language and you don’t know what to say. Don’t fret, a lot of native speakers can also make mistakes at this time as it is very difficult to talk to a bereaved* person. Mostly, people make the mistake of using present tense verb, instead of past tense. If you are worried about making these mistakes, then here are some tips that...
How to use right filler words or 'gap words' in English conversation When trying to improve your spoken English, your aim shouldn’t simply be to improve your vocabulary and be fluent. A good English speaker has to be clear and economical with the words they use. One trick is to use your words wisely, especially when it comes to filler words like ‘alright’, ‘well’, ‘Okay’, ‘hold on’, and ‘actually’. The tricky part about filler words is that if not used correctly, you might come across as a confusing, or even a rude person. You...
How to use English words– Remember, Remind and Memorize English, as people popularly say, is a confusing language. And the reason for that is, when a word in a different language, say Hindi, is translated in English, you have to be very specific about which English word you choose. The English vocabulary is wide, and there are many words to mean the same thing, but that need to be used in different contexts, and that is what confuses people who are learning English, or are not fluent in their spoken...
English words to use instead of “Very” I could start this blog by saying that I am very thankful that you stopped by to read this blog. Hope it helps in improving your spoken English. Or I could also say that I am extremely delighted that you chose to utilize your five minutes of the day to read this blog and I am hopeful that it will help you in some way in improving your spoken English. The difference, as you would have understood, is simply that the second sentence reads better...

Replication of DNA

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What is a nucleic acid?

bio_dna1Nucleic acids are biological macromolecules present in all living organisms.  These are responsible for the storage and transfer of genetic information from generation to generation.  Friedrich Miescher, a Swiss biochemist (1869) was the first to isolate nucleic acids from the nucleus of pus cells and Salmon sperm.  He called it "nuclein".  Altman (1899) coined the term "nucleic acid".  Nucleic acids are biological macromolecules present in all living organisms.



 

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) :

Occurrence:

DNA found in all organisms except a few viruses.  The greatest amount of DNA is concentrated in the nucleus.  It also occurs in cell organelles like mitochondria, plastids and centrioles.

DNA - The genetic material

Chromosomes mainly consist of nucleoproteins having two components nucleic acids and proteins.  One of these should obviously constitute the genetic material.

Chemical Composition

Deoxyribonucleic acid is a polynucleotide molecule consisting of a repeating sequence of monomeric nucleotides arranged in a linear polymeric chain.  Each monomeric nucleotide is composed of three components.
I)    A five carbon (pentose) sugar – Deoxyribose
II)   A phosphoric acid group
III)  A nitrogenous base (either purine or pyrimidine)


Purine bases are adenine and guanine.  Pyrimidine bases are thymine and cytosine.  The pyrimidine uracil is absent.
Adenine pairs with thymine by two hydrogen bonds.  Cytosine pairs with guanine by three hydrogen bonds.

Watson-Crick model of DNA

bio_dna2DNA Replication Process :

1. Replication occurs inside the chromosomes.
2. It occurs during interphase.
3. The parent DNA strands function as templates for the synthesis of new DNA strands.
4. New DNA is produced by semi conservative process. Of the two strands produced, one strand is the parental strand and the second strand is newly synthesized.
5. Replication starts at a specific point called origin.
6. At the site of origin, the two strands separate. This separation is brought about by the enzyme helicase.
7. At the point where the two strands are separated, a replicating fork is formed. The fork appears in the form of a Y. The duplication of DNA is brought about by the movement of the replication fork.
8. The separated DNA strands act as templates.
9. DNA synthesis requires a RNA primer. The primer is a short RNA polynucleotide chain.
The primer RNA is synthesized by the DNA template close to the origin of replication. It is synthesized by RNA polymerase. s
10. Synthesis of the new DNA strand takes place by the addition of DNA nucleotides to the ribonucleotide of the RNA primer. This leads to the elongation of the primer nucleotide in the 5' -3' direction. This is catalyzed by the enzyme DNA polymerase.
11. In one parent DNA strand, the daughter strand is synthesized as a continuous strand. This strand is called leading strand because it is synthesized first.
12. In the second DNA strand, the daughter strand begins slightly later. Hence this daughter strand is called lagging strand. The lagging strand is synthesized in short fragments called Okazaki fragments.
The replication is semi conservative discontinuous because the DNA is synthesized in short segments.
13. The enzyme DNA ligase joins the Okazaki fragments into a long polynucleotide chain.
14. The RNA primer is degraded at the end of replication.
15. Replication may occur in one direction from the point. of origin or in both directions. When replication occurs in only one direction, it is called unidirectional replication. When replication occurs in both directions, it is called bidirectional replication.
16. The newly formed chain is exactly complementary to the template chain.
17. In replication, both strands are involved. The synthesis occurs in the 5'-3' direction in both strands. In one strand, it goes from left to right and in the other strand in the reverse direction.

DNA replication

bio_dna3

Functions of DNA

1.DNA is the genetic material in most of the organisms except a few RNA viruses, controlling the structure and function of an organism.
2.DNA is capable of self replication or duplication and passes on the hereditary characters to the next generation. 
3.DNA undergoes mutation and genetic recombination.
4.DNA synthesizes RNA.
5.DNA sends coded information for protein synthesis.  The proteins control the structure and function of the cells.

What is the difference between a DNA and the RNA?

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