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Complications in Child birth


Risks of Child Birth

Mortality rate

Childbirth is a dangerous and risky activity. Child birth may subject to many complications. 1500 deaths per 100,000 births are recorded by maternal health

Labor complications

The second stage of labor may be delayed or lengthy due to:


Secondary changes

  • Swelling of the tissues,
  • Maternal exhaustion
  • Fetal heart rate abnormalities.

Left untreated, severe complications include death of mother and/or baby, and genitovaginal fistula.


Maternal complications

Vaginal birth

  • Vaginal birth injury with visible tears is common in normal delivery.

Risk factors

  • More than 9 pounds OF BABY WEIGHT.
  • The use of forceps or vacuum for delivery.
  • These markers are more likely to be signals for other abnormalities as forceps or vacuum are not used in normal deliveries.
  • The need to repair large tears after delivery.

Pelvic girdle pain

Hormones and enzymes work together to produce ligamentous relaxation and widening of the symphysis pubis during the last trimester of pregnancy. Most girdle pain occurs before birthing, and is known as diastasis of the pubic symphysis.

Infection causes Maternal mortality

  • Infection is the major cause of maternal mortality.
  • Hemorrhage, or heavy blood loss cause death.
  • Blood transfusion saves life of mother.


Fetal complications

Mechanical fetal injury

  • fetal macrosomia (big baby) Over baby weight may cause risks of mother during delivery. It may affect the respiration of the baby too.
  • maternal obesity: Over weight of the mother also influence the fetal injury. It may give more pressure to the baby during pregnancy and child birth as well.


Neonatal infection



Risk factors for GBS infection

  • prematurity (birth prior to 37 weeks gestation)
  • a sibling who has had a GBS infection
  • prolonged labour or rupture of membranes

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