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English Guide: Practical Tips for Better English Communication

article thumbnail Gratitude is of vital importance in human life. We need to thank people who have, directly or indirectly, explicitly or implicitly, made a positive change in our life. ‘Thank You’ is the least that we can say. So never shy away from that. In professional life too, gratefulness is of utmost importance, especially when someone has helped you climb up the career ladder.       It’s your promotion party and you have to give a thank you speech – this...
article thumbnail   We all have encountered situations wherein there were unavoidable or unforeseen circumstances because of which we had to extend our leave. For example, sickness, family issues, marriage etc. Now here comes the uncomfortable question – how to ask the boss for a leave extension. Quite tricky, huh?     When you are already on leave and then you have to request for extension of leave, it should be done in such a way that it is granted without much...
article thumbnail In the US, 24th of September each year is marked as the World Punctuation Day. That there is a separate day honouring proper punctuation, indicates its importance in ensuring the correctness and beauty of the English language.       Examples galore of how the complete meaning of a sentence can change with the incorrect use of punctuation. Here are three examples from a blog post that highlight this aspect.   “We’re going to learn to cut and paste...
article thumbnail A few months back, a video of a job prospect venting out his frustrations on having to speak in English at job interviews, went viral. The protagonist of the video, a youngster, who could speak English fluently was angry that he was always asked to speak in English, and he let out his frustration with a series of expletives in Hindi. The fact that the video went viral and was shared by a large audience in the country, especially among...
article thumbnail Man is a social animal. We cannot survive in isolation. Also, we all crave for love and attention, no denying that. We are constantly expanding our social network. Be it personal or professional life, networking is of utmost importance to us: Social networking, for getting love and affection, and professional networking for career enhancement.       In this competitive world, we cannot lounge around waiting for opportunities to knock at our door. We...
article thumbnail Someone has rightly said, “Good conversation starts with good listening”. Our teachers have often told us that we wouldn’t learn anything new from talking but we will definitely learn something new from listening. How true! There’s a lot of buzz about spoken English these days, but people tend to forget that English listening is also an integral and inseparable part of English communication, which cannot be overlooked.No wonder then the...
article thumbnail India is undergoing a digital revolution. The country has embarked on the ‘Digital India’ movement that has been officially promoted by the Indian government. It is therefore not surprising to see a jump in career opportunities in the field of digital marketing, especially search engine marketing (SEM). This field attracts a lot of freshers and young job aspirants. Having good English skills will enable a person to take advantage of the growing...
article thumbnail Good manners will open doors that the best education cannot.” Etiquette is the science of living. It embraces everything.People all over the world are judged, liked, disliked, remembered or looked down with contempt based on their manners. Good manners speak a lot about your personality.       It is imperative that you display your best behaviour when you are in a public place especially when eating out.  When you walk into a restaurant you don’t want to...
article thumbnail Good teamwork is essential not only for the growth of any organisation but also for the personal growth of individuals in the organisation. An essential component of achieving good team bonding is when team members express positive thoughts about fellow team members to them directly.  Sincere compliments and praise go a long way in making a person feel good and feel motivated to perform better for the team and the organisation.     There are a...
article thumbnail At the outset, let us state that we hope you never have to apply for a compassionate leave. However, the reality is that most of us, at some stage of our life, end up having to request for such leaves. This article is written to specifically help you in case of such an eventuality.     Before we get into the mechanics of applying for compassionate leave, let us first understand what is compassionate leave. It is leave granted to an employee upon death...
article thumbnail The use of idioms in regular communication serves to add more ‘colour’ to the communication and makes it more interesting and engaging. Therefore, it is quite common to see the usage of lots of English idioms, especially sports-related idioms, in any office communication. As a young professional, adapting yourself to an office environment, it will help to not only be familiar with some of the common idioms but also learn to use them in your...
article thumbnail The Indian IT & ITES industry has been one of the major employers of the young, educated workforce in the last two-three decades. The demand for qualified manpower in this sector with diverse technical skills continues to be high. Many IT professionals therefore believe that their technical skills such as programming will be good enough to give them a good and long, successful career. This is far from the truth. Excellent English communication skills...
article thumbnail This is another article written specifically to help visitors to our blog avoid some common grammar mistakes and improve their spoken English skills. In this piece, we will focus on a common mistake that we keep hearing and reading from so many English speakers these days: the use of “one of the….” in sentences.   To start with, let us take some examples of the type of sentences that you may come across in everyday conversation. Pay specific...
blackboard Two important aspects of any language are the grammar and the vocabulary. While you focus on improving your English vocabulary, it is also important to ensure that you work on grammar as well.The truth is that grammar is the foundation and the building block for becoming proficient in English, while vocabulary lends beauty to the language.It is also true that fixing grammar issues is more challenging than building on your vocabulary. So, the...
english-can-may An important aspect of communication between any two individuals is seeking and obtaining permission to carry out any specific activity or task. Right from our childhood and school days, we have been taught to ask permission from our parents or teachers, whether this is to take or do something. Whether you will be successful in getting the permission, depends on the way you ask. Here are some key considerations to bear in mind. Be polite when you...
Welcome speech When you join a new office, it is likely that you will be given a formal or informal welcome. Depending on the size of the organisation, this may involve small or large groups of colleagues, including your managers.  The purpose of these welcome meetings is to speed up your ‘integration’ into the organisation by acquainting yourself with colleagues and the work they do. It is also to ease your nerves, make you comfortable and feel welcome into the...
article thumbnail The size of your vocabulary is one of the indicators of your command of the language. Having a large vocabulary does not automatically guarantee that one is a good communicator- because the appropriate usage of the vocabulary is even more important- but it certainly helps to have it than not. The reasons are not too difficult to understand. A big English vocabulary is empowering because it gives the freedom to use different words at appropriate times....
report by LinkedIn The nature of work is changing, and pretty fast at that! The pace of adoption of digital technologies is such that one can be rendered obsolete very quickly. Artificial intelligence and machine learning are taking over a lot of functions that previously relied on human beings, and very few professions can be considered immune to the conquest by technology. This raises serious questions on what skills will keep professionals valuable to their...
Learn-to-speak-up-in-office-meetings ‘If you just communicate, you can get by. But if you communicate skilfully, you can work miracles’. Office meetings provide a great platform for an employee to make oneself visible and be heard. The success of any meeting lies in the effectiveness of the ideas communicated. Thus it becomes imperative that you should speak effectively and make people take note of you. These meetings should be viewed as an opportunity to showcase your abilities....
IELTS IELTS examination is a near-mandatory doorway that people, planning to study or work overseas in countries where the main language of communication is English,have to get through. Similar to an entrance test for certain professional courses or government institutions, the IELTS test aims to determine the proficiency of candidates in the English language. The evaluators use this test to identify different facets of English communication amongst...
funny idioms Idioms make a sentence feel lively. When you use idioms in a sentence, it adds a humorous element and make you look like a native speaker. Native speakers use more idioms and phrases in order improve their English communication skills. Knowing the correct meaning and proper usage can make you a pro in the English language.Idioms are figurative in nature and cannot be considered literal. In today’s blog, we will explain funny idioms that one must...
English idioms for office As you get used to working in a company, chances are that you will often encounter idioms (phrases whose meanings are not obviously based on the individual words used) from your peers or bosses. Many of these are so overused that they have become clichés, but it is important that you understand these to get a clear idea of the context of the statement. While there are countless idioms that may be used in the workplace, let us just touch upon...
Sports Idioms Work is, in many ways, like sports. The ups and downs, the winning and losing, the planning and preparation, the execution and the myriad emotions- they all mirror what happens on a playing field. In fact, some career experts suggest that one should treat our jobs as a game we love, and work will be so much more enjoyable, productive and fulfilling. No wonder we have so many idioms in the English language that are related to sports. While these...
Telephonic Interview Tips and Mistakes to Avoid When you have a telephonic interview scheduled, you are bound to be anxious and nervous about it. After all, appearing for an interview alone is daunting enough. You have to prepare yourself way ahead of appearing for one. And when it is supposed to be over the phone, it is additionally stressful. How do you make an impression on someone without having met them face-to-face? Body language, gestures and your expressions are all important parts of...
Take versus Bring One common habit among non-native English speakers is that they translate sentences in their native language into English and this is where they go wrong. As someone who is learning spoken English, one needs to understand that the way a sentence is structured in, say Hindi or Tamil, it is not structured the same way in English. The syntax and grammar is different for each language. This is why a lot of people get confused and use the wrong...

Structure of Nucleic Acids – DNA

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Structure of DNA

bio_mole_01Nucleic acids are biological macromolecules present in all living organisms.  These biological molecules  are essential for life, and include DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid).

These are responsible for the storage and transfer of genetic information from generation to generation.  Friedrich Miescher, a Swiss biochemist (1869) was the first to isolate nucleic acids from the nucleus of pus cells and Salmon sperm.  He called it “nuclein”.  Altman (1899) coined the term “nucleic acid”.  

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

Occurrence:

DNA found in all organisms except a few viruses.  The greatest amount of DNA is concentrated in the nucleus.  It also occurs in cell organelles like mitochondria, plastids and centrioles.

Chemical Composition:

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Deoxyribonucleic acid is a polynucleotide molecule consisting of a repeating sequence of monomeric nucleotides arranged in a linear polymeric chain.  Each monomeric nucleotide is composed of three components.


i)A five carbon (pentose) sugar – Deoxyribose

II)A phosphoric acid group

III)A nitrogenous base (either purine or pyrimidine)

Purine bases are adenine and guanine.  Pyrimidine bases are thymine and cytosine.  The pyrimidine uracil is absent.

Adenine pairs with thymine by two hydrogen bonds.  Cytosine pairs with guanine by three hydrogen bonds. 

DNA – Double Helix

J.D.Watson and F.H.C. Crick in 1953 proposed the double helix model of DNA based on Chargaff’s analytical data and the X-ray diffraction studies made by M.H.F Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin.   They were awarded Nobel prize in 1962 for this work.

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The features of Watson and Crick model of DNA are:

1.DNA is composed of two helical polynucleotide chains that are coiled around a common axis forming a double helix (usually right-handed) resembling a spiral staircase.
 

2.The sugar phosphate units of the nucleotides form the backbone and the nitrogenous bases form the cross rungs of the DNA molecule.
 

3.Nucleotides of a strand are linked to each other through phosphor-diester bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the other nucleotide.
 

4.The two strands of the DNA molecule are held together by the hydrogen bonds formed between purine and the pyrimidine bases.  The base pairing is specific.  Always adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine.  This is known as complimentary base pairing.  Due to this the two stands of the DNA are complimentary and not identical.
 

5.The amount of purines and pyrimidines are always equal (A+G=C+T).  The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine and the amount of cytosine is equal to guanine.  This is Chargaff’s rule of base equivalence.  The ratio A+G/T+C is always a unity.
 

6.Number of hydrogen bonds is specific.  There are two hydrogen bonds between A and T and 3 hydrogen bonds between G and C (A=T and G=C).
 

7.The two strands are anti parallel. ie. One of them runs in 5’ to 3’ direction and the other runs in 3’ to 5’ direction.
 

8.The diameter of the DNA molecule is 20 A (2nm).  One full turns of the double helix (one gyre) takes 34 A (3.4nm) and has 10 base pairs.  One base pair is placed at an angle of 36 degrees with reference to the next base pair. The distance between the two adjacent base pair is 3.4 A degree. 
 

9.The double helix has two grooves  namely major deep groove and minor shallow groove.  They alternate each other.  In these grooves specific proteins interact with DNA molecule.


Functions of DNA

1.DNA is the genetic material in most of the organisms except a few RNA viruses, controlling the structure and function of an organism.

2.DNA is capable of self replication or duplication and passes on the hereditary characters to the next generation.  

3.DNA undergoes mutation and genetic recombination.

4.DNA synthesizes RNA.

5.DNA sends coded information for protein synthesis.  The proteins control the structure and function of the cells.
 

What is the difference between a DNA and the RNA?

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