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Biological -Interactions


Interactions classified by mechanism

Biological interactions are the interactions between organisms in a community. Ecological interactions are classified as intra-specific or inter-specific interactions and as harmonious or inharmonious interactions.

•    Intra-specific ecological interactions - Between individuals of the same species. Example: in Human beings the competition between them for a job.
•    Inter-specific ecological interactions -Between individuals of different species.

These interactions have many types based on effects or mechanism. Duration and strength of the relationship also has importance in interactions.

Interactions classified by effects

•    Pollination- Species  meet once in a generation 
•    Endosymbiosis – Species live completely within another
•    Predation - One species eating the other
•    Neutralism  - The interaction between two species but do not affect each other
•    Amensalism - During interaction one restricting the success of the other.
•    Competition -  Mutually detrimental interaction between individuals
•    Antagonistic - One species benefits at the expense of another
•    Commensalism - Benefits one organism and the other organism is neither benefited nor harmed.
•    Mutualism -Interaction between two or more species with a mutual benefit.\

Interaction classified by mechanisms

•    Symbiosis - close and long-term interactions between different species.
•    Competition -  an interaction between organisms and the stronger one always wins!

Let’s now discuss about interaction classified by mechanisms


It can be used to describe various degrees of close relationship between organisms of different species. It sometimes refers to a relationship in which both organisms benefit, and sometimes it describes parasitism only. But it does not refer to predation. One organism lives on other or lives in other.  These organisms are related by mutually beneficial, repeated behaviors can also be referred by symbiosis.

But whatever the case this symbiosis interaction is common in our living world. We know the importance of the interactions between organisms. But the importance is much more than what we imagine!

•    Parasites are present in every organism. Mutualistic gut fauna present in a large percentage of herbivores. It can easily digest plant matter than animal prey.
•    Coral reefs are the mutualisms between coral organisms and their internal living algae.
•    Plants fix carbon from the air. Mycorrhyzal fungi help in extracting minerals from the ground. These two have the mutualisms.

The evolution of all eukaryotes happened because of the symbiosis between various sorts of bacteria.

                                                Symbiosis Relationships



It is an interaction between organisms or species, in which the fitness of one is lowered by the presence of another. Normally competition occurs to access the resources like food, water, etc. If it is limited in supply of resources, both the organism start fighting to utilize it and the stronger one dominates over the weaker one and gains more access the resource.

              Competition for food

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