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English Guide: Practical Tips for Better English Communication

article thumbnailIf you are like most people, you would like to achieve professional growth and success in your career. Typically, career success would mean promotions, greater responsibilities and accompanying financial rewards. If you look around you, you will often find that the people who progress and move up the ladder are those who demonstrate passion at work, are proactive, and of course, perform on the job at hand with the desired or...
article thumbnailIt is never a pleasant task to call up the customer service of one of your service providers and complain about any issue you may have encountered, whether it is a faulty bill or inadequate service you have received. Nevertheless, making unpleasant telephone conversations to lodge a complaint is a part of life that one must be prepared for. How you go about making this conversation can go a long way in determining whether you get the desired...
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article thumbnailIf you are planning to take the IELTS test, you would be aware that the test comprises of four different modules: Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking. For many IELTS test takers, the speaking test is often the most difficult. This is not very surprising because it is akin to speaking in public. It is a known fact that ‘public speaking’ is one of the scariest tasks for people.      There are three sections in the  speaking test in IELTS. The...
article thumbnailThere is a quote attributed to the writer Stephen King that says that “if you want to be a writer, there are two things you must do: Read a lot and write a lot.” You can extend that quote to say the following:  “To be a fluent English speaker, you must listen a lot and speak a lot.” While there is no substitute to this mantra, we will give you some more details of how you could work towards becoming a more fluent speaker.          To start with, let’s...
article thumbnailIt is well known that the quality of communication between two or more individuals, impacts the outcome of business meetings. While the exact content of the meeting and its structure are critical, certain external factors like the energy and enthusiasm of the participants in a meeting, also play a very important role in the success or failure of a meeting. In this article, we will offer some simple tips on how you can improve the chances of a...
article thumbnailA career in sales can be very exciting and lucrative for people who do well in it. Sales brings  in revenues for any organisation, and revenues help companies move forward. As long as one is performing well and continues to bring in sales, one’s job is fairly secure because in times of adversity businesses slash costs, while trying to keep revenues high. Yet, success in a sales career isn’t guaranteed for everyone. It takes certain personality...
article thumbnailWhen it comes to learning spoken English, many people often mistake the purpose of the learning. They tend to think that acquiring English speaking skills is about speaking with a British or American accent. They couldn’t be farther from truth. The true purpose should be to learn to speak English correctly, fluently, confidently and in manner that the listener understands the communication without much difficulty.      Too much emphasis is laid on...
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article thumbnailEnglish language has plenty of words that seem very similar but mean very different. It is quite easy to ignore the subtle difference in the words themselves and consider them to mean the same thing. This results in incorrect usage of the words when writing or speaking in English, which may confuse the listener or create a negative impression about your English Communication skills. Let’s focus on two words, improve and improvise; the former is a...
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article thumbnailGratitude is of vital importance in human life. We need to thank people who have, directly or indirectly, explicitly or implicitly, made a positive change in our life. ‘Thank You’ is the least that we can say. So never shy away from that. In professional life too, gratefulness is of utmost importance, especially when someone has helped you climb up the career ladder.       It’s your promotion party and you have to give a thank you speech – this...
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article thumbnailIn the US, 24th of September each year is marked as the World Punctuation Day. That there is a separate day honouring proper punctuation, indicates its importance in ensuring the correctness and beauty of the English language.       Examples galore of how the complete meaning of a sentence can change with the incorrect use of punctuation. Here are three examples from a blog post that highlight this aspect.   “We’re going to learn to cut and paste...
article thumbnailA few months back, a video of a job prospect venting out his frustrations on having to speak in English at job interviews, went viral. The protagonist of the video, a youngster, who could speak English fluently was angry that he was always asked to speak in English, and he let out his frustration with a series of expletives in Hindi. The fact that the video went viral and was shared by a large audience in the country, especially among...
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article thumbnailAt the outset, let us state that we hope you never have to apply for a compassionate leave. However, the reality is that most of us, at some stage of our life, end up having to request for such leaves. This article is written to specifically help you in case of such an eventuality.     Before we get into the mechanics of applying for compassionate leave, let us first understand what is compassionate leave. It is leave granted to an employee upon...
article thumbnailThe use of idioms in regular communication serves to add more ‘colour’ to the communication and makes it more interesting and engaging. Therefore, it is quite common to see the usage of lots of English idioms, especially sports-related idioms, in any office communication. As a young professional, adapting yourself to an office environment, it will help to not only be familiar with some of the common idioms but also learn to use them in your...
article thumbnailThe Indian IT & ITES industry has been one of the major employers of the young, educated workforce in the last two-three decades. The demand for qualified manpower in this sector with diverse technical skills continues to be high. Many IT professionals therefore believe that their technical skills such as programming will be good enough to give them a good and long, successful career. This is far from the truth. Excellent English communication skills...
article thumbnailThis is another article written specifically to help visitors to our blog avoid some common grammar mistakes and improve their spoken English skills. In this piece, we will focus on a common mistake that we keep hearing and reading from so many English speakers these days: the use of “one of the….” in sentences.   To start with, let us take some examples of the type of sentences that you may come across in everyday conversation. Pay specific...
blackboard Two important aspects of any language are the grammar and the vocabulary. While you focus on improving your English vocabulary, it is also important to ensure that you work on grammar as well.The truth is that grammar is the foundation and the building block for becoming proficient in English, while vocabulary lends beauty to the language.It is also true that fixing grammar issues is more challenging than building on your vocabulary. So, the...

Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium

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Introduction

The chemical reactions can occur both in forward and backward  directions. When the rates of the forward and reverse reactions become equal, this  stage is called chemical equilibrium. This equilibrium is dynamicin nature as it consists of a forward reaction in which the reactants give product(s) and reverse reaction in which product(s) gives the original reactants.

In general, a chemical equilibrium is represented as:


aA + bB ---------à  xX + yY

dynamic_equilibrium_02

Concept of Chemical Equilibrium

Consider a general reaction,

A + B ------> à C + D

In the beginning (at time t=0) the concentration of A and B are  maximum and the concentrations of C and D are minimum (equal to zero).  With passage of time, there is accumulation of  the products C and D and depletion of the reactants A and B (Figure). As a result, the rate of forward reaction decreases while the rate of backward reaction goes on increasing.

Ultimately, a stage comes when the rate of forward reaction becomes equal to  rate of backward reaction. The reaction is then said to be in equilibrium.
 

Following examples illustrate how equilibrium  is attained.
 

Decomposition of calcium carbonate in a closed vessel

If calcium carbonate is heated in a closed  vessel, the following equilibrium is achieved:

CaCO3(s) → CaO (s) + CO2 (g)
 

Decomposition of N2O4 in a Closed Vessel

The decomposition of N2O4  in a closed vessel dynamic_equilibrium_04 

 

Combination of H2 and I2 to form HI

This is a reversible reaction as shown below:

dynamic_equilibrium_05


 
If H2 and I2 (in  equimolar ratio) are enclosed in glass bulb at 500°C, the colour in the  beginning is purple but as the time passes, the intensity of the colour  decreases and then no further change in colour is observed. This again  indicates that the reaction has attained a state of equilibrium.
 

Reaction of Ferric  Nitrate and Potassium Thiocyanate Solution

This reaction is also a reversible reaction  and may be represented as follows:
 
 dynamic_equilibrium_06


Dynamic Nature of Equilibrium


When chemical  equilibrium is reached, the observable property is that the concentration of  each of the reactants becomes constant.

In Haber’s process, known amounts of dinitrogen and dihydrogen mixed at high  temperature and pressure, when the equilibrium is attained, the concentrations  nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia becomes constant.
 

To know the dynamic nature of the equilibrium, ammonia is synthesised  at completely similar initial conditions, only difference is H2 is  replaced by D2 (deuterium). Irrespective of the starting components H2  or D2, at equilibrium the reaction mixture has same composition; only  difference is that D2 and ND3 are found instead of H2  and NH3. On mixing both the reaction mixtures, the equilibrium is disturbed  and after reestablishing the equilibrium, the reaction mixture is found to have  same concentration of ammonia as in earlier cases. Now, the mixture has NH3,  NH2D, NHD2, ND3 and H2, HD and D2  present in it. This confirms the equilibrium  is dynamic in nature.
 

Similarly, the reactiondynamic_equilibrium_05can be attained from


either side as shown in the figure. 
dynamic_equilibrium_07 

What do you understand by dynamic equilibrium?


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