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English Guide: Practical Tips for Better English Communication

english-can-may An important aspect of communication between any two individuals is seeking and obtaining permission to carry out any specific activity or task. Right from our childhood and school days, we have been taught to ask permission from our parents or teachers, whether this is to take or do something. Whether you will be successful in getting the permission, depends on the way you ask. Here are some key considerations to bear in mind. Be polite when you...
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article thumbnailThe size of your vocabulary is one of the indicators of your command of the language. Having a large vocabulary does not automatically guarantee that one is a good communicator- because the appropriate usage of the vocabulary is even more important- but it certainly helps to have it than not. The reasons are not too difficult to understand. A big English vocabulary is empowering because it gives the freedom to use different words at appropriate times....
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IELTS IELTS examination is a near-mandatory doorway that people, planning to study or work overseas in countries where the main language of communication is English,have to get through. Similar to an entrance test for certain professional courses or government institutions, the IELTS test aims to determine the proficiency of candidates in the English language. The evaluators use this test to identify different facets of English communication amongst...
funny idioms Idioms make a sentence feel lively. When you use idioms in a sentence, it adds a humorous element and make you look like a native speaker. Native speakers use more idioms and phrases in order improve their English communication skills. Knowing the correct meaning and proper usage can make you a pro in the English language.Idioms are figurative in nature and cannot be considered literal. In today’s blog, we will explain funny idioms that one...
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Sports Idioms Work is, in many ways, like sports. The ups and downs, the winning and losing, the planning and preparation, the execution and the myriad emotions- they all mirror what happens on a playing field. In fact, some career experts suggest that one should treat our jobs as a game we love, and work will be so much more enjoyable, productive and fulfilling. No wonder we have so many idioms in the English language that are related to sports. While these may...
Telephonic Interview Tips and Mistakes to Avoid When you have a telephonic interview scheduled, you are bound to be anxious and nervous about it. After all, appearing for an interview alone is daunting enough. You have to prepare yourself way ahead of appearing for one. And when it is supposed to be over the phone, it is additionally stressful. How do you make an impression on someone without having met them face-to-face? Body language, gestures and your expressions are all important parts...
Take versus Bring One common habit among non-native English speakers is that they translate sentences in their native language into English and this is where they go wrong. As someone who is learning spoken English, one needs to understand that the way a sentence is structured in, say Hindi or Tamil, it is not structured the same way in English. The syntax and grammar is different for each language. This is why a lot of people get confused and use the wrong...
Speech Pronunciations If you are on the path of improving your English language skills, you’ve probably gone through the usual routine of understanding the basic grammar do’s and don’ts and read extensively on it. You are also probably putting your improved knowledge to good use while conversing with friends, colleagues or family. But what if you had to speak on a platform? What if you were asked to come over onto a stage and talk about a particular topic? How would that...
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How to speak politely while raising a complaint to customer service department When you have had a bad experience with a service or product, it is only natural to feel cheated and angry. And the first thing to do when that happens is to lodge a complaint with the customer service department. However, when you are angry, you off-load all your frustration on the executive you are interacting with, without being open to solutions or suggestions. This is where you go wrong. Bear in mind that the person you are talking to is...
How to ask the right questions: Developing a vital life skill Remember how in school, our teachers encouraged us to ask questions. Whenever you speak with an intellectual, or with a person at a higher position than yours, you will notice that they always encourage you to ask questions and clear your doubts. Asking questions, and importantly, asking the right questions is an important part of a healthy and beneficial conversation. When you ask a question, you understand the concept better and put forward...
How to politely refuse additional work responsibilities You are a rockstar at your office. You are on every project that comes in, and your colleagues always need your opinion on the work they are doing. Your boss barely has a meeting without you present in there, and you are working on each project that comes in. Awesome! You are an asset to your company. But here is the problem. You know that you have way more on your plate than what you signed up for. While the praises that keep coming in are...
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Social etiquette: How to politely interrupt a conversation Isn’t it annoying when somebody interrupts you while you are speaking to someone, especially if you are discussing something rather important or are in the middle of a conversation or an argument. But sometimes interruption becomes mandatory and people have to do it; also there will be instances where you will need to interrupt a person, and you definitely don’t want to be annoying. So how do you interrupt a conversation politely? How do you...
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When to use "a Lot", "Very" and "So" When I started learning English, there were so many things I used to be confused about the language. One was, what word to use and when. A lot of words in English seem like they can be used interchangeably, but actually they shouldn’t be. There is a reason why there are different words for different reasons, because they need to be used in different ways.  For example, words like ‘lot’ and ‘very’ signify something in high quantity, something...
Common English grammar mistakes: Usage of among vs between I will not blame you if you thought there were a lot of contradictory rules in the English language. While it may be confusing for someone who is not a native speaker, don’t let that scare you. Hang in there. Once you understand the rules and logic behind why certain things are the way they are, you will get a knack of it, and also understand the nuances of using the correct words in the right way. We have discussed at length about a lot of...
How to express condolence in English It is difficult to talk to a person when they have lost someone. It is even more difficult if English is your second language and you don’t know what to say. Don’t fret, a lot of native speakers can also make mistakes at this time as it is very difficult to talk to a bereaved* person. Mostly, people make the mistake of using present tense verb, instead of past tense. If you are worried about making these mistakes, then here are some tips that...
How to use right filler words or 'gap words' in English conversation When trying to improve your spoken English, your aim shouldn’t simply be to improve your vocabulary and be fluent. A good English speaker has to be clear and economical with the words they use. One trick is to use your words wisely, especially when it comes to filler words like ‘alright’, ‘well’, ‘Okay’, ‘hold on’, and ‘actually’. The tricky part about filler words is that if not used correctly, you might come across as a confusing, or even a...
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Electric Potential

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Introduction to Electric Potential

When a charged particle moves in an electric field, work is done and energy transfers take place. If the electrical force moves a charge a certain distance, it does work on that charge. The change in electric potential over this distance is defined through the work done by this force:
Work done = Force X distance = (charge on Q) X (Potential)

Unit of Electric Potential

electricpotential1
As a formula, a unit of electric potential is written as follows. The energy per unit of charge is often called voltage and so is symbolized with the capital letter V.   Work or energy can be measured in Joules, and charge is measured in Coulombs. Consequently, electrical potential can be measured in Joules per Coulomb, which is defined as a volt.

 electricpotential2= 1V

Electrical Potential Difference

Consider a positive test charge +Q placed at A in the electric field of another positive point charge.
electricpotential3The test charge moves towards B under the influence of the electric field of the other charge. In the process the test charge loses electrical potential energy and gains kinetic energy. Thus, at A, the test charge has more potential energy than at B -- A is said to have a higher electrical potential than B. The potential energy of a charge at a point in a field is defined as the work required to move that charge from infinity to that point. The potential difference between two points in an electric field is defined as the work required to move a unit positive test charge from the point of lower potential to that of higher potential. If an amount of work W is required to move a charge Q from one point to another, then the potential difference between the two points is given by,
    V = W/Q
Thus from the above equation we can say that one volt is the potential difference between two points in an electric field, if one joule of work is done in moving one coulomb of charge from one point to the other.

Analogy For Electric Potential

A gravitational analogy is used to explain the reasoning behind the relationship between location and potential energy. On the one hand, moving a positive test charge against the direction of an electric field is like moving a mass upward within Earth's gravitational field. Both movements are like going against nature and require work by an external force. This work would in turn increase the potential energy of the object. On the other hand, the movement of a positive test charge in the direction of an electric field is like a mass falling downward within Earth's gravitational field. Both movements are like going with nature and can happen without work by an external force. This motion would result in the loss of potential energy. Potential energy is the stored energy of a positioned object and is related to the location of the object within a field.

If two objects of different charge -- with one being twice the charge of the other -- are moved the same distance in the electric field, then the object with twice the charge would require twice the force and thus twice the amount of work. This work would change the potential energy by an amount that is equal to the amount of work that is done. Thus, the electric potential energy depends on the amount of charge on the object experiencing the field and on the location within the field. Just like gravitational potential energy, electric potential energy depends on at least two types of quantities:
1) Electric charge -- a property of the object experiencing the electrical field, and
2) Distance from source -- the location within the electric field

What is Equipotential?

A surface with constant potential is called an equipotential surface.
Consider two points A and B on an equipotential surface as shown in the figure below.
electricpotential4







VB - VA = 0
VB = VA

Properties of equipotential surfaces:
1. Electric field lines point from high to low potential
2. The direction of electric field lines is perpendicular to equipotential surface.
3. Equipotential surfaces produced by a point charge or spherically charge distribution are a family of concentric spheres.
4. Equipotential surfaces can never cross each other.

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